On behalf of the Organizing Committee of the 34th IUGB Congress, we are pleased to welcome you to LITHUANIA, 26 to 30 August,  2019.
An essential key of the 34th IUGB Congress referred to Wildlife: Coexistence or Opposite?
The 34th IUGB 2019 Congress presents research related to forestry, agriculture, hunting, recreation, urbanization, climate change, ecosystem and economic development, and human-wildlife coexistence. Managers of natural resource as foresters, hunters, soil and water conservationists, civil engineers, urban and land use planners and researchers no longer have the luxury of thinking of themselves in isolation from one another. They work within the same environment (landscapes, watersheds, and communities).

“We shall never achieve harmony with land, any more than we shall achieve absolute justice or liberty for people. In these higher aspirations the important thing is not to achieve, but to strive.” (Aldo Leopold, by L.B. Leopold, ed.: Round River: From the Journals of Aldo Leopold. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953, 55.).

   It was the most personal efforts of Aldo Leopold to restore natural things as game and wildlife populations, watersheds, forests and rangelands, prairies and wetlands, diversity, ecosystem function and land health.

   Since the 1980s, sustainability has served to bind together the many intersecting social and environmental issues, from climate changes and biodiversity loss to population growth, global poverty, and public health. Sustainability of human development is feasible if it does not destroy the ecosystems on which people and wildlife depend. Since Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic (1949) that was one of the first clarion calls announcing a new era of thinking about Nature, however, around the world, human populations still continue to grow and anthropogenic ecosystem changes increasingly affect wildlife. Habitat degradation, fragmentation as well as climate warming not only may decrease food availability and destroy the movement of animals but also may increase the opportunity for contact among humans, livestock and wildlife, potentially enhancing disease transmission rates. Concurrently, infectious diseases are identified as an increasing threat to wildlife conservation. There is perception that infectious diseases were previously under control, because of their rapid spread while development of drugs and vaccines to combat some of these is, unfortunately, slow and costly.

   Over the course of time, conflict management strategies earlier comprised lethal control, translocation, regulation of population size and preservation of endangered species. Recent management approaches attempt to use scientific research for better management outcomes, such as behaviour modification and reducing interaction. As human-wildlife conflicts inflict direct, indirect and opportunity costs, the mitigation of human-wildlife conflict is an important issue in the management of biodiversity and protected areas. Maintaining biodiversity is an enormous challenge and depends on knowledge of the complex interdependencies between human and wildlife. Evaluating the state of wildlife in relation to human wellbeing underpins our ability to sustainably manage natural resources while delivering development goals.